Before the 18th century when Spain was not a fully formed territory, lacking enough territorial force, it suffered at the hands of anyone who conquered the Mediterranean. The name Spain itself has an origin from the Greek word “Hispania” meaning their westernmost territory. During those ages, securing territorial waters was of vital importance because emperors could control trade routes while charging taxes. These taxes could later be sent to their capitals for resources of expanding their empires across the whole Mediterranean.
If you look on a map, the kingdom of Spain lies on the north of a shipping route into Europe from the Atlantic Ocean, tightening on the Strait of Gibraltar. This location served as resting points for traders heading into the Middle East or other parts of Europe. It also was an entrance into Europe by Voyages from the south. Conquering the entire coastline of Spain and those of surrounding countries that border the Sea, therefore, meant to be a superpower by those days’ standards.
The term colonization means an act of establishing an occupation on indigenous people’s land without their consent with intents of control. This definition will fully back to what will be discussed here, starting from the first occupants of Spain until it became a kingdom. Early historical data shows that the Phoenicians, indigenous of Lebanon and some parts of Israel, were among the first colonizers of Spain. They brought with them more modern textiles, which also included expensive pigments of different colors never seen by Spaniards. The new conquerors were experts in fishing, and staying long days in the sea, backed up by their superior food conservation mechanisms.
They conquered Arabic coastlines and established their capital at Cadiz, near the opening of the Mediterranean Sea. It was a strategic place for their dominance at sea while still reaping from traders that used the route. Cadiz grew to be a big city, and flourished by its architectural designs, which are still visible today. Their reign ended when they were unsettled by the Greeks who at the time were mighty occupiers. Initially, the Greeks had started by occupying Italy by eliminating any kingdom that refused to join their legions.
Soon it becomes apparent that Hellers will conquer all of Europe because their army was an indestructible force, sweeping all over the Mediterranean coastline. They had gone as deep as the Dark sea, acquiring new territory as they defeat armies. Unlike the Phoenicians, the Greeks settled in southeastern Spain in a city known as Ampurias. They brought in olive and vine cultivations together with initiating the manufacturing of fine wine. During their stay, Greeks assimilated local populations, introducing them to their culture and norms. This effect was still later felt even after their collapse and was perpetuated by Catalans who occupants of Barcelona.
Of all colonizers of Spain, none had moved further inland than Carthaginians, who filled in the occupation as soon as the Greek empire collapsed. They were innovators who marveled at Spaniards with complex naval engineering. These colonizers constructed harbors on southern eastern parts of Spain that served as their command post. They’re the most profitable colonizer of Spain because of their highly organized command line, with each bounty made used for enriching their armies, and further their inland invasion. Cities that boomed during their occupations are Alicante, Ibiza, and Cartagena.
Carthaginians were later displaced by the Romans who by now had taken control of Italy and Spain. Their soldiers were in constant battles across all the Mediterranean, salvaging everything in their path. These wars were known as Punic wars, and by then the Romans had the biggest territorial occupation ever recorded in Europe. Their success was defined by stable leadership at the top and effective means of communication. Before long, the Romans took control of Spain, establishing their dominance through culture and forms of Government. Much of Spaniards’ culture today is borrowed from the Romans not limited to language, lifestyle, Roman catholic religion, and traditions.
Major cities in Spain were started by their Romans, and most of their architectural historical sites have Roman touch on them. However, after their fall, opportunistic invaders who had no stronger armies or organized like their predecessors invaded Spain. These include the Vandals; a Germanic Tribe, settled in southern Spain but were later ousted by Visigoths. The Visigoth’s reign didn’t last for long either, they were displaced by the Moors, Arab Berbers, who had a stronger army. They settled in the province of Al Andulas with their capital Córdoba. From here is when Spaniards took control of their territory by defeating them in a war.